Fact Sheets


Leucanthemum vulgare Lam.

Family :

Famille :


Synonym(s) :

Synonyme(s) :

Chrysanthemum leucanthemum L.

Common Name(s) :

Nom(s) commun(s) :

Ox-eye daisy
(English) (GC 2016)

Marguerite blanche (French) (GC 2016)

Marguerite daisy (English) (CABI 2020)

Moon daisy (English) (CABI 2020)

Margarita de los prados (Spanish) (CABI 2020)

Bin ju (Chinese) (CABI 2020)

Frühblühende Margerite (German) (CABI 2020)

  • Ox-eye daisy (Leucanthemum vulgare) achenes

  • Ox-eye daisy (Leucanthemum vulgare) achenes

  • Ox-eye daisy (Leucanthemum vulgare) achene

  • Ox-eye daisy (Leucanthemum vulgare) achene, side view

  • Ox-eye daisy (Leucanthemum vulgare) top of the achene

Explore More :

Explore plus :



Regulation :

Remarques Réglementation:

  • CFIA Weed Seeds Order - Class 3: Secondary Noxious Weed Seeds
  • CFIA Weed Seeds Order - Class 5: Noxious Weed Seeds

Regulation Notes:

Distribution :

Répartition :

Native to Europe and western temperate Asia (USDA-ARS 2020). Naturalized in east and southern Africa, eastern temperate and southern tropical Asia, Australia, New Zealand, North America and parts of South America (USDA-ARS 2020). Occurs in all Canadian provinces and territories (Brouillet et al. 2010+).

Habitat and Crop Association :

Habitat et Cultures Associées :

Cultivated land, hayfields, pastures, gardens, lawns, rangeland, native grasslands, forest openings, abandoned croplands, roadways, railway embankments and disturbed areas (Darbyshire 2003; Clements et al. 2004).

Economic Use, cultivation area, and Weed Association :

Utilisation économique, zone de culture et association de mauvaises herbes :

Duration of Life Cycle :

Durée du cycle vital:


Dispersal Unit Type :

Type d’unité de dispersion :


General Information


Leucanthemum vulgare was introduced to North America as an ornamental and seed contaminant in the late 1700s. By 1800, it was well established in many areas of North America (Clements et al. 2004).

Reproduction occurs mainly through seeds but plants can also sprout from underground stems (Clements et al. 2004). A single plant may produce several thousand seeds per season that can remain viable in the soil for 5 to 40 years (Clements et al. 2004).


Leucanthemum vulgare infestation in Prince Albert National Park, Saskatchewan, Canada (Canadian Food Inspection Agency)



  • Achene


    • Achene length*: 1.3 – 2.2 mm; width: 0.6 – 1.0 mm
    *Note: minimum and maximum of 10 achenes in a normal range of this species using image measurement (ISMA 2020)


    • Achene cylindrical or wedge-shaped with truncate ends

    Surface Texture

    • Achene has 10 longitudinal ridges with smooth interspaces


    • Achene surface shiny dark brown with white streaks, and brown or light brown ridges

    Other Features


    • The pappus is absent or reduced to a ring of scales, generally removed by processing (Clements et al. 2004)

    Achene end with pappus

    • A short and thick style remnant is in the centre of the pappus end of the achene, may be removed during processing
  • Seed


    • Seed size same as achene size


    • Seed is cylindrical shaped with one pointed end

    Surface Texture

    • Seed surface is smooth


    • Seed is straw-yellow coloured

    Other Features

    • Seed coat is transparent
  • Embryo


    • Embryo fills the seed


    • Embryo is spatulate shaped, axial position


    • Endosperm absent, nutritive tissue stored in the cotyledons

Identification Tips


The longitudinal, light coloured ridges with dark coloured stripes between them are distinctive for this species. Similar species, such as cultivated Leucanthemum x superbum, have much larger achenes than L. vulgare.

Additional Botany Information



  • Flower heads are large (25.0 – 75. 0 mm diameter), disk shaped, with yellow disk flowers and white ray flowers (Clements et al. 2004)

Similar Species


Similar species are based on a study of seed morphology of various species, and those with similar dispersal units are identified. The study is limited by physical specimen and literature availability at the time of examination, and possibly impacted by the subjectivity of the authors based on their knowledge and experience. Providing similar species information for seed identification is to make users aware of similarities that could possibly result in misidentification.

Leucanthemum x superbum (Bergmans ex J. W. Ingram) D. H. Kent (Shasta daisy)

L. x superbum achenes are generally larger (length*: 1.7 – 4.1 mm; width 0.6 – 1.4 mm) than L. vulgare with darker coloured longitudinal ridges.

*Note: minimum and maximum of 10 achenes in a normal range of this species using image measurement (ISMA 2020)

Click to select species

Cliquez pour sélectionner les espèces

Comparison Window

Fenêtre de comparaison

Need ID Help?

Besoin d’aide pour l’identification?



Brouillet, L., Coursol, F., Meades, S. J., Favreau, M., Anions, M., Bélisle, P. and Desmet, P. 2010+. VASCAN, the database of vascular plants of Canada. http://data.canadensys.net/vascan/ Accessed November 23, 2020.

Centre for Agriculture and Bioscience International (CABI). 2020. Invasive Species Compendium, CAB International, Wallingford, UK. https://www.cabidigitallibrary.org/journal/cabicompendium Accessed November 23, 2020.

Clements, D. R., Cole, D. E., Darbyshire, S., King, J. and McClay, A. 2004. The biology of Canadian weeds. 128. Leucanthemum vulgare Lam. Canadian Journal of Plant Science 84: 343-363.

Darbyshire, S. J. 2003. Inventory of Canadian Agricultural Weeds. Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Research Branch. Ottawa, ON

Flora of North America (FNA) Editorial Committee, eds. 1993+. Flora of North America North of Mexico [Online]. 22+ vols. New York and Oxford.  Accessed December 29, 2022.

Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) Secretariat. 2022. https://doi.org/10.15468/39omei Accessed via https://www.gbif.org/species/8848598 Accessed December 29, 2022.

Government of Canada (GC). 2016. Canadian Weed Seeds Order. https://laws-lois.justice.gc.ca/eng/regulations/SOR-2016-93/page-2.html (English) https://laws-lois.justice.gc.ca/fra/reglements/DORS-2016-93/page-2.html (French)

International Seed Morphology Association (ISMA). 2020. Method for Seed Size Measurement. Version 1.0. ISMA Publication Guide.   https://www.idseed.org/authors/details/method_for_seed_size_measurement.html

U.S. Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Services (USDA-ARS). 2020. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN), https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx Accessed November 23, 2020.



Jennifer Neudorf, Angela Salzl, Ruojing Wang, Karen Castro, Katrina Entwistle

Canadian Food Inspection Agency