Fact Sheets


Sisymbrium loeselii L.

Family :

Famille :


Synonym(s) :

Synonyme(s) :

Common Name(s) :

Nom(s) commun(s) :

Tall hedge mustard
(English) (GC 2016)

Sisymbre élevé de Loesel (French) (GC 2016)

London false rocket (English) (USDA-ARS 2021)

  • Tall hedge mustard (Sisymbrium loeselii) seeds

  • Tall hedge mustard (Sisymbrium loeselii) seeds

  • Tall hedge mustard (Sisymbrium loeselii) seed

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Regulation :

Remarques Réglementation:

  • CFIA Weed Seeds Order - Class 3: Secondary Noxious Weed Seeds

Regulation Notes:

Distribution :

Répartition :

Native to parts of central and eastern Europe and temperate Asia. Introduced throughout much of Europe as well as in North America, South America, and Japan (FNA 1993+; USDA-ARS 2021). In the United States, found in many states except for some in the south (USDA-NRCS 2021). Occurs in Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, Northwest Territories, Ontario, Quebec and Saskatchewan in Canada (Brouillet et al. 2010+).

Habitat and Crop Association :

Habitat et Cultures Associées :

Cultivated fields, old fields, field margins, pastures, stream banks, vacant lots, roadsides, railway lines and disturbed areas (FNA 1993+; Frankton and Mulligan 1993; Darbyshire 2003).

Economic Use, cultivation area, and Weed Association :

Utilisation économique, zone de culture et association de mauvaises herbes :

Duration of Life Cycle :

Durée du cycle vital:


Dispersal Unit Type :

Type d’unité de dispersion :


General Information


Sisymbrium loeselii plants have a competitive edge in rangelands as they produce chemicals capable of inhibiting germination and growth of nearby plants (Bainard et al. 2009).


Sisymbrium loeselii foliage (Joseph M. DiTomaso, University of California – Davis, Bugwood.org)



  • Silique


    • Silique length: 20.0 – 35.0 mm long; width: 0.9 – 1.1 mm (FNA 1993+)


    • Silique is narrowly linear, can be straight or curved on the longitudinal axis, with transverse constrictions

    Surface Texture

    • Silique surface is smooth


    • Silique is dull straw yellow

    Other Features

    • Silique is shiny green when immature
    • 40 – 60 seeds per pod (FNA 1993+)
    • A persistent style remnant at one end of the silique 0.3 – 0.7 mm long (FNA 1993+)
  • Seed


    • Seed length*: 0.6 – 1.0 mm; width: 0.4 – 0.6 mm
    *Note: minimum and maximum of 10 seeds in a normal range of this species using image measurement (ISMA 2020)


    • Oblong shaped seed, with a round and a truncate end

    Surface Texture

    • Seed generally smooth with some wrinkles


    • Seed glossy, yellow coloured, dark orange at the end with the hilum

    Other Features

    Hilum & Hilum area

    • The hilum end is truncate, the radicle generally extends past the end
    • A groove from the hilum area between radicle and cotyledons, extends almost to the other end of the seed

    Other than hilum

    • The seed end opposite the hilum is round or angled
    • Seed is not mucilaginous when wetted (FNA 1993+)
  • Embryo


    • Embryo fills the seed


    • Embryo is bent


    • Endosperm is scant or lacking, nutritive tissue contained within cotyledons

    Other Features

    • Cotyledons are oval shaped, soft and light yellow coloured

Identification Tips


Seeds of species in the Brassicaceae that have oblong shape with a radicle groove include Sisymbrium species, Descurainia species, Erucastrum gallicum and Capsella bursa-pastoris. Seeds of Sisymbrium loeselii can be distinguished from these similar genera by a smooth surface and glossy yellow colour. S. loeselii can be distinguished from other Sisymbrium species by the same features, plus the radicle extends past the hilum end.

Additional Botany Information


Similar Species


Similar species are based on a study of seed morphology of various species, and those with similar dispersal units are identified. The study is limited by physical specimen and literature availability at the time of examination, and possibly impacted by the subjectivity of the authors based on their knowledge and experience. Providing similar species information for seed identification is to make users aware of similarities that could possibly result in misidentification.

Sisymbrium altissimum L. (tumble mustard)

S. altissimum seeds are generally larger (length *: 0.5 – 0.8 mm; width 0.5 – 0.7 mm) than S. loeselii, have a ridged reticulate surface and are shiny reddish-brown coloured compared to the wrinkled surface and glossy yellow colour of S. loeselii . The radicle does not extend past the end of the seed, unlike S. loeselii.

*Note: minimum and maximum of 10 seeds in a normal range of this species using image measurement (ISMA 2020)

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Bainard, L., Brown, P. D. and Upadhyaya, M. 2009. Inhibitory effect of tall hedge mustard (Sisymbrium loeselii) allelochemicals on rangeland plants and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Weed Science, 57: 386-393.

Brouillet, L., Coursol, F., Meades, S. J., Favreau, M., Anions, M., Bélisle, P. and Desmet, P. 2010+. VASCAN, the database of vascular plants of Canada. http://data.canadensys.net/vascan/ Accessed April 27, 2021.

Darbyshire, S. J. 2003. Inventory of Canadian Agricultural Weeds. Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Research Branch. Ottawa, ON.

Flora of North America (FNA) Editorial Committee, eds. 1993+. Flora of North America North of Mexico [Online]. 22+ vols. New York and Oxford.  Accessed December 29, 2022.

Frankton, C. and Mulligan, G. A. 1993. Weeds of Canada. Agriculture Canada, Publication 948.

Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) Secretariat. 2022. https://doi.org/10.15468/39omei Accessed via https://www.gbif.org/species/3046875 Accessed December 29, 2022.

Government of Canada (GC). 2016. Canadian Weed Seeds Order. https://laws-lois.justice.gc.ca/eng/regulations/SOR-2016-93/page-2.html (English) https://laws-lois.justice.gc.ca/fra/reglements/DORS-2016-93/page-2.html (French)

International Seed Morphology Association (ISMA). 2020. Method for Seed Size Measurement. Version 1.0. ISMA Publication Guide.

U.S. Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Services (USDA-ARS). 2021. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN), https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx Accessed April 27, 2021.

U.S. Department of Agriculture-Natural Resources Conservation Service (USDA-NRCS). 2021. The PLANTS Database. National Plant Data Team, Greensboro, NC USA. http://plants.usda.gov Accessed April 27,2021.



Jennifer Neudorf, Angela Salzl, Ruojing Wang, Karen Castro, Katrina Entwistle
Canadian Food Inspection Agency