Fact Sheets


Linaria repens Mill.

Family :

Famille :


Synonym(s) :

Synonyme(s) :

Antirrhinum repens L. (FNA 1993+; POWO 2022; Tropicos 2022; USDA-ARS 2022)
Linaria monspessulana Mill. (Tropicos 2022)


Common Name(s) :

Nom(s) commun(s) :

Striped toadflax

(English) (GC 2016; Tropicos 2022)
Linaire striée (French) (GC 2016)
Pale toadflax (English) (Darbyshire 2003)
Stribet torskemund (Danish) (CABI 2022)
Juovakannusruoho (Finnish) (CABI 2022)
Gestreiftes Leinkraut (German) (CABI 2022)


  • Striped toadflax (Linaria repens) seeds

  • Striped toadflax (Linaria repens) seeds

  • Striped toadflax (Linaria repens) seeds

  • Striped toadflax (Linaria repens) seed

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Regulation :

Remarques Réglementation:

  • CFIA Weed Seeds Order - Class 2: Primary Noxious Weed Seeds

Regulation Notes:

Distribution :

Répartition :

Native to northwest Germany to northern Spain in Europe (POWO 2022) and introduced into central and northern Europe and eastern North America (Hanf 1983). In the United States, it is present in New York, New Jersey, Massachusetts, Maine, Connecticut and Pennsylvania (USDA-NRCS 2022). In Canada, this species occurs in New Brunswick, Nova Scotia and Newfoundland (Brouillet et al. 2010+).

Habitat and Crop Association :

Habitat et Cultures Associées :

Cultivated fields, old fields, pastures, thickets, roadsides, railway lines and disturbed areas (Hanf 1983; Darbyshire 2003).

Economic Use, cultivation area, and Weed Association :

Utilisation économique, zone de culture et association de mauvaises herbes :

Duration of Life Cycle :

Durée du cycle vital:


Dispersal Unit Type :

Type d’unité de dispersion :


General Information


This species can form fertile hybrids with L. vulgaris (named L. x sepium G. J. Allman) when grown in the same area; the plants and seeds exhibit features similar to L. vulgaris or intermediate between the 2 species (FNA 1993+; Saner et al. 1995). This hybrid species has been identified as occurring in the British Islands and Newfoundland province in Canada (FNA 1993+; Saner et al. 1995).




  • Capsule


    • Capsule length: 3-4 mm; width: 2.8 – 4 mm (FNA 1993+)


    • Capsule is globose

    Surface Texture

    • Capsule surface is smooth


    • Capsule is dull straw yellow coloured

    Other Features

    • Capsule is 2-chambered and opens at one end by triangular-shaped valves
  • Seed


    • Seed length: length: 0.9 – 2.0 mm; width: 0.7 -1.3 mm
    *Note: minimum and maximum of 10 seeds in a normal range of this species using image measurement (ISMA 2020)

    From additional sources:

    • Seed length: 1.2 – 1.8 mm; width: 0.6 -1.0 mm (FNA 1993+)


    • Seed polygonal shaped, generally three sides with one side curved, appearing wedge-shaped, oval or D-shaped in 2 dimensions

    Surface Texture

    • Seed faces densely covered with irregular ridges that are granular or pitted under 30x magnification


    • Seed dull brownish-black coloured
    • Immature seeds are dull grey coloured

    Other Features

    Hilum and hilum area

    • Hilum is in an oval-shaped opening along a seed edge

    Other than hilum

    • The seed edges are rounded and granular or pitted, visible under 30x magnification


  • Embryo


    • Embryo partially fills the seed


    • Embryo is linear shaped in an axial position (Martin 1946)


    • Endosperm is oily and translucent grey coloured

Identification Tips


The seeds of Linaria species are generally black or dark brown coloured with a metallic reflection, small sized, and round or polygonal shaped. Seeds of L. repens are polygonal shaped along with similarly shaped species such as L. dalmatica, L. purpurea and L. genistifolia. Seeds of L. repens are distinguished from similar species by a curved edge on the seed, dull dark brown colour, granular edges and flat face ridges. Similar species are black coloured with a metallic reflection, and have smooth ridges compared to L. repens seeds.

Additional Botany Information



  • Flowers are generally white or light purple with a yellow dot on the one half and purple stripes on the other half (FNA 1993+; Lonchamp 2000)
  • Flower length: 9-14 mm, smaller than other common Linaria species (FNA 1993+)
  • Each flower has a narrow conical, nectar containing spur length:2-5 mm (FNA 1993+)

Vegetative Features

  • Leaf length: 4 – 50 mm; width: 0.7 – 6 mm (FNA 1993+)

Similar Species


Similar species are based on a study of seed morphology of various species, and those with similar dispersal units are identified. The study is limited by physical specimen and literature availability at the time of examination, and possibly impacted by the subjectivity of the authors based on their knowledge and experience. Providing similar species information for seed identification is to make users aware of similarities that could possibly result in misidentification.

Linaria genistifolia (L.) Mill. (broomleaf toadflax)

Linaria genistifolia seeds are generally smaller (length*: 0.6 – 0.8 mm; width: 0.4 – 0.5 mm) are black coloured with a metallic reflection, have one narrow end and sharp, winged edges compared to L. repens seeds.

Linaria dalmatica (L.) Mill. (Dalmatian toadflax)

L. dalmatica seeds are a similar size (length*: 1.1 – 1.6 mm; width: 0.7 – 1.1 mm), black colour with a metallic reflection, straight-edged polygonal shape and sharp, winged edges compared to L. repens seeds.

Linaria purpurea (L.) Mill.

L. purpurea seeds are a similar size (length*: 0.9 – 1.4 mm; width: 0.7 – 1.0 mm), have a polygonal shape with straight or curved edges and ridges on the flat faces are thicker compared to L. repens seeds.

*Note: minimum and maximum of 10 seeds in a normal range of this species using image measurement (ISMA 2020)

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Brouillet, L., Coursol, F., Meades, S. J., Favreau, M., Anions, M., Bélisle, P. and Desmet, P. 2010+. VASCAN, the database of vascular plants of Canada. http://data.canadensys.net/vascan/ Accessed March 23, 2022.

Centre for Agriculture and Bioscience International (CABI). 2022. Invasive Species Compendium, CAB International, Wallingford, UK. https://www.cabidigitallibrary.org/journal/cabicompendium Accessed April 19, 2022.

Darbyshire, S. J. 2003. Inventory of Canadian Agricultural Weeds. Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Research Branch. Ottawa, ON.

Flora of North America (FNA) Editorial Committee, eds. 1993+. Flora of North America North of Mexico [Online]. 22+ vols. New York and Oxford. http://www.fna.org/FNA/ Accessed December 29, 2022.

Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) Secretariat. 2022. https://doi.org/10.15468/39omei Accessed via https://www.gbif.org/species/5415019 Accessed December 29, 2022.

Government of Canada (GC). 2016. Canadian Weed Seeds Order. https://laws-lois.justice.gc.ca/eng/regulations/SOR-2016-93/page-2.html (English) https://laws-lois.justice.gc.ca/fra/reglements/DORS-2016-93/page-2.html (French)

Hanf, M. 1983. The Arable Weeds of Europe. BASF Aktiengessellschaft, Ludwigshafen, Germany.

Lonchamp, J.P., 2000. HYPPA: Unité de Malherbologie & Agronomie Weed Science & Agronomy. INRA-Dijon http://www.dijon.inra.fr/bga/hyppa/hyppa-a/linrp_ah.html Accessed March 23, 2022.

International Seed Morphology Association (ISMA). 2020. Method for Seed Size Measurement. Version 1.0. ISMA Publication Guide.

Martin, A.C. 1946. The comparative internal morphology of seeds. The American Midland Naturalist 36: 513-660.

Plants of the World Online (POWO) 2022. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet; http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/ Accessed March 23, 2022.

Saner, M. A., Clements, D. A., Hall, M. R., Dohan, D. J. and Crompton, C. W. 1995. The biology of Canadian weeds. 105. Linaria vulgaris Mill. Canadian Journal of Plant Science 75: 525-537.

Tropicos.org. 2022. Missouri Botanical Garden. https://tropicos.org Accessed April 19, 2022.

U.S. Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Services (USDA-ARS). 2022. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN), https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx Accessed April 19, 2022.

U.S. Department of Agriculture-Natural Resources Conservation Service (USDA-NRCS). 2022. The PLANTS Database. National Plant Data Team, Greensboro, NC USA. http://plants.usda.gov Accessed March 23, 2022.



Jennifer Neudorf, Angela Salzl, Ruojing Wang, Karen Castro, Katrina Entwistle
Canadian Food Inspection Agency